What is lymphocytic mastitis?
Lymphocytic mastitis, or diabetic mastopathy, is an unusual finding in early-onset and long-standing diabetes. It can presents as a non-tender or tender palpable breast mass. Mammogram and ultrasound frequently demonstrate findings suspicious of malignancy, thus biopsy and histological confirmation is usually required.
What is pathophysiology of mastitis?
Pathophysiology. In lactational mastitis, it is likely that bacteria (often originating from the mouth of the infant) gain entry via cracks or fissures in the nipple surface. Once the primary defenses are breached, organisms have an ideal culture environment in nutrient rich maternal milk leading to rapid replication.
Is granulomatous mastitis an autoimmune disease?
As an autoimmune disease, idiopathic granulomatous mastitis appears to have different manifestations and severity in different patients; therefore, a same treatment cannot be used for all patients with histologically-diagnosed IGM. The disease is self-limited and remitted spontaneously in some patients.
Can autoimmune disease affect breast tissue?
Breast tissue is also a potential target tissue in certain autoimmune diseases. In diabetes or lupus, mastitis is described, marked by pseudotumoral lesions and a lymphocytic infiltration of the breast parenchyma but without increase of breast volume (10–13).
How is granulomatous mastitis treated?
The treatment choices for GM include corticosteroids, antibiotics, abscess drainage, wide surgical resection, and even mastectomy. Several reports have described that corticosteroid administration and/or wide excision are effective.
What is focal fat necrosis?
Summary. Fat necrosis happens when inflammation affects the supply of blood and oxygen to body fat, causing fat cells to die. It can happen after an injury, surgery, or radiation treatment. Fat necrosis commonly affects the breasts, where it can lead to lumps, skin changes, and oil cysts.
How is mastitis diagnosed?
- Breast tenderness or warmth to the touch.
- Breast swelling.
- Thickening of breast tissue, or a breast lump.
- Pain or a burning sensation continuously or while breast-feeding.
- Skin redness, often in a wedge-shaped pattern.
- Generally feeling ill.
- Fever of 101 F (38.3 C) or greater.
What are the two types of mastitis?
Mastitis can be subdivided into two categories based on the source of infections: 1) Contagious mastitis infections acquired by transmission of contagious bacteria from cow to cow during the milking process; and, 2) Environmental infections acquired from bacteria in the environment of the cow.
What is histopathological granuloma?
Granulomatous inflammation is a histologic pattern of tissue reaction which appears following cell injury. Granulomatous inflammation is caused by a variety of conditions including infection, autoimmune, toxic, allergic, drug, and neoplastic conditions.
How is granulomatous mastitis diagnosed?
Patients were included in the study when all other possible causes of granuloma formation were excluded. The diagnosis was confirmed by either core needle biopsy (CNB) or excisional biopsy, or also from biopsy specimens taken from the abscess wall during drainage.
Is mastitis an autoimmune disease?
Autoimmune mastitis belongs to a third group of etiologies. This group has recently been described in the medical literature and includes a wide range of autoimmune diseases [1,2,3].
How is chronic mastitis diagnosed?