What is the cause of fulminant hepatic failure?

What is the cause of fulminant hepatic failure?

Fulminant hepatitis is most often caused by: An overdose of acetaminophen. This painkiller is found in many over-the-counter and prescription medicines. Taking one very large dose can cause your liver to fail quickly.

What are the causes of fulminant hepatitis?

Etiology of acute liver failure

Viral Hepatitis A,B ,C, D ,E, CMV HSV, EBV, VZV, HHV 6, Parvo-virus B19, Parainfluenza, Yellow Fever, and others
Associated with pregnancy Acute fatty liver of pregnancy, HELLP-Syndrome
Vascular Budd-Chiari-Syndrome , veno-occlusive disease, shock, heart failure

What is the etiology of hepatic encephalopathy?

Hepatic encephalopathy is caused when toxins that are normally cleared from the body by the liver accumulate in the blood, eventually traveling to the brain. Many of the symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy are reversible when promptly detected and treated.

Which virus causes fulminant hepatic failure?

Acute hepatitis C (HCV) infection has been identified as an important cause of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF), characterized by rapid deterioration of liver function from massive hepatic necrosis leading to encephalopathy and multi-organ failure.

What is the difference between hepatitis and fulminant hepatic failure?

Symptoms of acute hepatitis include jaundice, anorexia, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. In fulminant disease there is rapid progression to hepatic failure and encephalopathy. Physical examination may reveal fever, hepatosplenomegaly with liver tenderness, scleral or cutaneous icterus, and mucosal bleeding.

Which virus causes fulminant hepatic failure in pregnancy?

Background and aim: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection leading to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and high mortality is a common feature in Indian women during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.

Why does ammonia cause encephalopathy?

Hepatic encephalopathy, a condition that happens when the liver is too diseased or damaged to properly process ammonia. In this disorder, ammonia builds up in the blood and travels to the brain. It can cause confusion, disorientation, and coma. It can sometimes be fatal.

Why does hypokalemia cause hepatic encephalopathy?

Hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis are considered precipitating factors for hepatic encephalopathy, as hypokalemia stimulates ammoniagenesis in the proximal tubule. Although, the mechanism is not entirely clear, the likely hypothesis is as follows: *Hypokalemia causes the movement of potassium out of the cells.

What is the difference between acute severe liver failure and fulminant hepatic failure?

Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, can cause serious complications, including excessive bleeding and increasing pressure in the brain. It’s a medical emergency that requires hospitalization. Depending on the cause, acute liver failure can sometimes be reversed with treatment.

What causes fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy?

Hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D virus (HDV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), transfusion transmitted virus (TTV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalo virus (CMV) can all lead to FH, with HBV being the commonest cause (accounting for about 85%).

What is the most common cause of acute liver failure during pregnancy?

Acute liver failure (ALF) in pregnancy is a common challenging clinical problem both in terms of correct diagnosis and management. Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy.

Why lactulose is given in hepatic encephalopathy?

This drug is used by mouth or rectally to treat or prevent complications of liver disease (hepatic encephalopathy). It does not cure the problem, but may help to improve mental status. Lactulose is a colonic acidifier that works by decreasing the amount of ammonia in the blood. It is a man-made sugar solution.