Which biomarkers are used traumatic brain injury research?

Which biomarkers are used traumatic brain injury research?

The use of blood biomarkers after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) has been widely studied. We have identified eight unresolved issues related to the use of five commonly investigated blood biomarkers: neurofilament light chain, ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1, tau, S100B, and glial acidic fibrillary protein.

Why are biomarkers important for TBI?

Serum biomarkers would provide a potentially very low-cost and time-efficient method for detection, evaluation, and prognosis of TBI. Many serum biomarkers such as S100B and GFAP, among others, have proven to be indicative of molecular and biochemical changes induced by TBI and breaches in the BBB.

What is one of the biomarkers that shows promising in the evaluation of TBI?

S-100B, an astroglial protein, has been the most extensively studied biomarker for TBI thus far and has been incorporated into some clinical guidelines for CT scans (13, 14).

What are the prognostic indicators of TBI?

Core predictors for moderate and severe TBI may include age, motor score (or full GCS), and pupillary reactivity (based on literature, and the CRASH and IMPACT core models) (Table S1). Other important prognostic factors may include CT characteristics, secondary insults, and biomarker measurements.

What are brain biomarkers?

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) Proteins and other substances made by brain cells can be detected in CSF. Measuring changes in the levels of these substances can help diagnose neurological problems. Doctors perform a lumbar puncture, also called a spinal tap, to get CSF.

What is the best prognostic factor for head injury?

For optimal accuracy, prognosis should be based upon a combination of factors, including age, Glasgow coma score, pupillary response, eye movements, presence of surgical lesion, motor posturing and multimodality evoked responses.

What are the different types of biomarkers?

Types: Molecular, histologic, radiographic, and physiologic characteristics are types of biomarkers.

What is an example of biomarkers?

Examples of biomarkers include everything from blood pressure and heart rate to basic metabolic studies and x-ray findings to complex histologic and genetic tests of blood and other tissues. Biomarkers are measurable and do not define how a person feels or functions.

What are the 3 characteristics of a Glasgow Coma Scale?

The scale assesses patients according to three aspects of responsiveness: eye-opening, motor, and verbal responses. Reporting each of these separately provides a clear, communicable picture of a patient’s state.

What does a Glasgow score of 3 mean?

The GCS is the summation of scores for eye, verbal, and motor responses. The minimum score is a 3 which indicates deep coma or a brain-dead state. The maximum is 15 which indicates a fully awake patient (the original maximum was 14, but the score has since been modified).