What are the pathogenesis of tuberculosis?
Infection occurs when a person inhales droplet nuclei containing tubercle bacilli that reach the alveoli of the lungs. These tubercle bacilli are ingested by alveolar macrophages; the majority of these bacilli are destroyed or inhibited.
What are the pathological changes in tuberculosis?
Arthur Dannenberg described the pathology of tuberculosis in detail [2, 3]. There are five stages: onset, symbiosis, early stages of caseous necrosis, interplay of cell-mediated immunity and tissue damaging delayed-type hypersensitivity, and liquefaction and cavity formation.
What is tuberculosis write its symptoms and pathophysiology?
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a type of bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It’s spread when a person with active TB disease in their lungs coughs or sneezes and someone else inhales the expelled droplets, which contain TB bacteria.
What is mycobacterial pathogenesis?
Pathogenic mycobacteria, including the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. A hallmark of these pathogens is their tendency to establish chronic infections that produce similar pathologies in a variety of hosts.
What is the mechanism of pathogenesis?
Pathogenesis is the process by which an infection leads to disease. Pathogenic mechanisms of viral disease include (1) implantation of virus at the portal of entry, (2) local replication, (3) spread to target organs (disease sites), and (4) spread to sites of shedding of virus into the environment.
How does pathogenesis occur?
Disease can arise from pathogens that secrete toxins, from dysregulation of the immune system or simply from aging. Far more commonly, pathogenesis occurs as a consequence of complex interactions between an infecting pathogen and the immune system.
What are the 5 causes of TB?
Risk factors for TB include:
- HIV infection.
- Being in jail or prison (where close contact can spread infection)
- Substance abuse.
- Taking medication that weakens the immune system.
- Kidney disease and diabetes.
- Organ transplants.
What type of pathogen is Mycobacterium tuberculosis?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis. First discovered in 1882 by Robert Koch, M. tuberculosis has an unusual, waxy coating on its cell surface primarily due to the presence of mycolic acid.
What are the 5 stages of pathogenesis?
The stages of pathogenesis include exposure, adhesion, invasion, infection, and transmission.