## What are the units of bond convexity?

The units of the numerator are ‘PriceChange% / Yield%’. The units of the denominator are just ‘Yield%’. Therefore the units of convexity are ‘PriceChange% / Yield%2’.

**What units is a bond’s duration measured in?**

Units. Macaulay duration is measured in years. Modified duration is measured as the percent change in price per one unit (percentage point) change in yield per year (for example yield going from 8% per year (y = 0.08) to 9% per year (y = 0.09)).

### Why do putable bonds have positive convexity?

Puttable bonds always have positive convexity. It is because the duration of the bond falls when the yield in the market increases and vice versa. Positive convexity defines that the price change (increase) would be more when yield falls compared to the fall in price when yield increases.

**What is the convexity formula?**

As can be seen from the formula, Convexity is a function of the bond price, YTM (Yield to maturity), Time to maturity, and the sum of the cash flows. The number of coupon flows (cash flows) change the duration and hence the convexity of the bond.

#### How do you calculate convexity and duration?

Another way to view it is, convexity is the first derivative of modified duration. By using convexity in the yield change calculation, a much closer approximation is achieved (an exact calculation would require many more terms and is not useful). Using convexity (C) and Dmod then: % Price Chg. = -1 * D mod * Yield Chg.

**What is bond duration and convexity?**

Duration measures the bond’s sensitivity to interest rate changes. Convexity relates to the interaction between a bond’s price and its yield as it experiences changes in interest rates. With coupon bonds, investors rely on a metric known as duration to measure a bond’s price sensitivity to changes in interest rates.

## How is duration measured?

Duration measures a bond’s or fixed income portfolio’s price sensitivity to interest rate changes. Macaulay duration estimates how many years it will take for an investor to be repaid the bond’s price by its total cash flows. Modified duration measures the price change in a bond given a 1% change in interest rates.

**What is the difference between callable and putable bonds?**

In contrast to callable bonds (and not as common), putable bonds provide more control of the outcome for the bondholder. Owners of putable bonds have essentially purchased a put option built into the bond.

### How do you calculate convexity duration?

**How is convexity measured?**

Convexity is a measure of the curvature in the relationship between bond prices and bond yields. Convexity demonstrates how the duration of a bond changes as the interest rate changes. If a bond’s duration increases as yields increase, the bond is said to have negative convexity.