What does acyltransferase do?
The acyltransferase contains ACP as a bound subunit that acts as the intermediate acyl acceptor in the acyltransferase reaction and the high salt concentrations are required to dissociate the acyl-ACP intermediate from the enzyme thereby uncovering the synthetase activity.
What is polyketide synthase type1?
Type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) are multifunctional enzymes that are organized into modules, each of which minimally contains a β-ketoacyl synthase, an acyltransferase (AT), and an acyl carrier protein.
What is Acetyl CoA in biology?
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Its main function is to deliver the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production.
What is polyketide synthase gene?
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are a family of multi-domain enzymes or enzyme complexes that produce polyketides, a large class of secondary metabolites, in bacteria, fungi, plants, and a few animal lineages. The biosyntheses of polyketides share striking similarities with fatty acid biosynthesis.
What is the importance of polyketide pathway in drug discovery?
Many polyketides are clinically important, with antimicrobial, anticancer and immunosuppressive properties. Moreover, they are important in the producing organisms, facilitating competition for substrates and communication between organisms (Khosla, 2009).
Why is acetyl-CoA important?
acetyl CoA: Acetyl coenzyme A or acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in metabolism, used in many biochemical reactions. Its main function is to convey the carbon atoms within the acetyl group to the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to be oxidized for energy production.
What enzyme produces acetyl-CoA?
The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex then catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to produce acetyl-CoA, a two-carbon acetyl unit that is ligated to the acyl-group carrier, CoA .
What is polyketide pathway?
3 Polyketide biosynthesis pathway. Polyketides are a group of natural products that are synthesized by bacteria, fungi, and plants. They illustrate significant importance in producing medicines and hydrocarbon biofuels. Polyketides are synthesized from acetyl-CoA by polyketide synthases (PKSs).
What are polyketide antibiotics?
Examples of polyketides include: Macrolides; Pikromycin, the first isolated macrolide; the antibiotics erythromycin A; clarithromycin, and azithromycin; the immunosuppressant tacrolimus; Radicicol and Pochonin family (HSP90 inhibitor); Polyene antibiotics; Amphotericin; Tetracyclines and the tetracycline family of …
How acetyl-CoA can be used in the body?
Acetyl CoA is used to create lipids, triglycerides, steroid hormones, cholesterol, and bile salts. Lipolysis is the breakdown of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids, making them easier for the body to process.
Why is acetyl coenzyme A important?
Introduction. Acetyl-CoA occupies a pivotal role in metabolism being an end product of major important catabolic routes such as glycolysis, fatty acid β-oxidation, and amino acid degradation. In anabolism, acetyl-CoA is the unique building block that is used for fatty acid biosynthesis.
What are trans-acyltransferase polyketide synthases?
Trans -acyltransferase polyketide synthases ( trans -AT PKSs) are bacterial multimodular enzymes that biosynthesize diverse pharmaceutically and ecologically important polyketides. A notable feature of this natural product class is the existence of chemical hybrids that combine core moieties from different polyketide structures.
Are gdvg-type acyltransferases used in the biosynthesis of diverse lipopeptides?
This result thus indicates that GdvG-type acyltransferases are used for the condensation of PKs and RiPPs in the biosynthesis of diverse lipopeptides. Some of the clusters also possess NRPS genes instead of lanKC and lanD, indicating that gdvG homologues may catalyse the condensation reaction of acyl units with the peptides derived from NRPSs.
Do gdvg-type acyltransferases catalyse the condensation reaction of acyl units with peptides?
Some of the clusters also possess NRPS genes instead of lanKC and lanD, indicating that gdvG homologues may catalyse the condensation reaction of acyl units with the peptides derived from NRPSs. This suggests that GdvG-type acyltransferases may be responsible for condensation of an acyl unit to a peptide regardless of the type of peptide.
Does genome mining reveal trans-AT polyketide synthase directed antibiotic biosynthesis?
Teta, R. et al. Genome mining reveals trans -AT polyketide synthase directed antibiotic biosynthesis in the bacterial phylum bacteroidetes. ChemBioChem 11, 2506–2512 (2010).