What is induced pluripotent stem cells regenerative medicine?
Definition and Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells iPS cells are generated via genetic reprogramming of adult somatic cells that have limited differentiation potential but, upon reprogramming, express genes that enable them to regain plasticity and give rise to all cell types (1).
Can human induced pluripotent stem cells?
Recently, human somatic cells have been reprogrammed directly to pluripotency by ectopic expression of four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc) to yield induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.
How do you induce pluripotent stem cells?
Pluripotent stem-cell lines can be obtained through the reprogramming of somatic cells from different tissues and species by ectopic expression of defined factors.
How would iPS cells be used in medicine?
The use of iPSCs may eliminate the chances of immune rejection as patient specific cells may be used for transplantation in various engraftment processes. Moreover, iPSC technology has been employed in various diseases for disease modeling and gene therapy.
What are the benefits of induced pluripotent stem cells?
The primary advantages of iPSCs compared to other stem cells are: a) iPSCs can be created from the tissue of the same patient that will receive the transplantation, thus avoiding immune rejection, and b) the lack of ethical implications because cells are harvested from a willing adult without harming them.
What can induced pluripotent stem cells be used for?
Induced pluripotent stem cells are widely used in therapeutics for disease modeling, regenerative medicine, and drug discovery (Figure 4). There are many applications of iPSCs in the fields of gene therapy, disease modeling and drug discovery.
What is the difference between pluripotent stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells?
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of preimplantation embryos. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by somatic cell reprogramming following the exogenous expression of specific transcription factors (Oct-3/4, KLF4, SOX2, and c-Myc).
Why are induced pluripotent stem cells useful in the field of regenerative medicine?
iPSCs possess unique properties of self renewal and differentiation to many types of cell lineage. Hence could replace the use of embryonic stem cells (ESC), and may overcome the various ethical issues regarding the use of embryos in research and clinics.
What would be considered an advantage of using iPS cells over HES cells for regenerative medicine?
What is the main use of regenerative medicine?
Regenerative medicine is focused on developing and applying new treatments to heal tissues and organs and restore function lost due to aging, disease, damage or defects. The human body has the natural ability to heal itself in many ways.
Why might induced pluripotent stem cells be a valuable tool in science and medicine?
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are adult cells reprogrammed artificially to behave like embryonic stem cells. The advantage of induced pluripotent stem cells is the reduced chances of graft rejection since it uses somatic cells from the same individual.
Why are induced pluripotent stem cells used instead of embryonic stem cells?
iPS cell advantages iPS cells should be less prone to immunorejection since they can be patient-derived or MHC class I-matched for compatibility. Production of iPS cell lines also avoids the ethical controversy of embryo destruction associated with ES cell generation.