What regulates alternative splicing?

What regulates alternative splicing?

Splicing is regulated by trans-acting proteins (repressors and activators) and corresponding cis-acting regulatory sites (silencers and enhancers) on the pre-mRNA. However, as part of the complexity of alternative splicing, it is noted that the effects of a splicing factor are frequently position-dependent.

What is alternative splicing in protein regulation?

Alternative splicing (AS) is a mechanism of regulation of the proteome via enabling the production of multiple mRNAs from a single gene. To date, the dynamics of AS and its effects on the protein sequences of individuals in a large and genetically unrelated population of trees have not been investigated.

How does alternative splicing regulate protein synthesis?

Alternative splicing is a molecular mechanism that modifies pre-mRNA constructs prior to translation. This process can produce a diversity of mRNAs from a single gene by arranging coding sequences (exons) from recently spliced RNA transcripts into different combinations.

Which proteins are involved in splicing?

Splicing is catalyzed by the spliceosome, a large RNA-protein complex composed of five small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). Assembly and activity of the spliceosome occurs during transcription of the pre-mRNA. The RNA components of snRNPs interact with the intron and are involved in catalysis.

Who regulates splicing process?

The SR protein family and hnRNPs are universal splicing regulators. The key RBP families involved in splicing regulation are the serine/arginine-rich proteins (SR proteins) [10, 55] and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) [11, 56].

How is spliceosome regulated?

Here, we present genetic and molecular evidence that the LSM2–8 complex, and consequently the U6 snRNP, regulates the spliceosome activity. Remarkably, our results show that the function of the complex in regulating the spliceosome activity is controlled by external signals.

How does alternative splicing regulate gene expression?

Abstract. Alternative splicing (AS) regulates gene expression patterns at the post-transcriptional level and generates a striking expansion of coding capacities of genomes and cellular protein diversity. RNA splicing could undergo modulation and close interaction with genetic and epigenetic machinery.

How can Micrornas Mirnas regulate gene expression?

microRNA controls gene expression mainly by binding with messenger RNA (mRNA) in the cell cytoplasm. Instead of being translated quickly into a protein, the marked mRNA will be either destroyed and its components recycled, or it will be preserved and translated later.

What molecules and proteins are involved in RNA splicing?

RNA splicing is performed by the spliceosome, a large and dynamic ribonucleoprotein complex composed of proteins and small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), which assembles on the pre-mRNA (Figure 1).

How does RNA splicing regulate protein synthesis?

RNA splicing allows for the production of multiple protein isoforms from a single gene by removing introns and combining different exons.

How does alternative splicing result in different proteins?

Alternative splicing is the process of selecting different combinations of splice sites within a messenger RNA precursor (pre-mRNA) to produce variably spliced mRNAs. These multiple mRNAs can encode proteins that vary in their sequence and activity, and yet arise from a single gene.

What role do proteins play in the splicing of Group I self splicing introns in vivo?

The two exons flanking the intron are joined together and a linear-shaped intron is released. What role do proteins play in the splicing of group I self-splicing introns in vivo? A. Proteins shield the negative charges on the RNA backbone.