What is the pathophysiology of filariasis?
Overview. Filariasis infection occurs when a larva carrying mosquito bites an individual, introducing these larvae into the skin. The larvae then enters the patient’s blood through the skin wound and spread to the different sites such as lymphatic vessels, subcutaneous tissues or the serous cavities.
What is filaria antigen test?
Test Usage: This assay helps in the detection of Microfilaria in the peripheral blood in both lymphatic and non-lymphatic filariasis.
How do you test for filarial worms?
The standard method for diagnosing active infection is the identification of microfilariae in a blood smear by microscopic examination. The microfilariae that cause lymphatic filariasis circulate in the blood at night (called nocturnal periodicity).
What is the blood test for filariasis?
A microfilaria test involves examination of the blood smear to identify the existence of microfilariae in blood. Usually, a microfilariae blood test is conducted at night to coincide with the appearance of microfilariae.
What is the pathophysiology of elephantiasis?
Elephantiasis occurs in the chronic stage of lymphatic filariasis due to the obstruction of lymphatic vessels by filariae. After invasion into lymph vessels, third stage larvae grow to maturity in the lymphatic system, mainly in and around the genitourinary system.
Which is the pathogen of filariasis?
The causative agents of lymphatic filariasis (LF) include the mosquito-borne filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, B. timori An estimated 90% of LF cases are caused by W. bancrofti (Bancroftian filariasis).
What is DEC provocation test?
The other alternative test is a DEC provocation test, where the suspected patient is given a single oral dose of 50–100 mg of diethylcarbamazine (DEC is a safe drug, normally used for the treatment for LF), followed by a blood sample 30–45 minutes later: this procedure can “flush out” microfilaria into the peripheral …
How do you test for elephantiasis?
Your doctor can find out if you have elephantiasis by giving you a physical exam. They will ask about your medical history, and whether you’ve traveled to a place where you were more likely to have gotten elephantiasis. They also will have blood tests done to see if roundworms are in your bloodstream.
What is the difference between elephantiasis and lymphedema?
Elephantiasis is caused by under-treatment of lymphedema, and due to the obstruction of the lymph vessels of the lymphatic system. As lymph moves through the lymphatic system, it is filtered by a network of small structures known as lymph nodes that help to remove microorganisms (e.g., viruses, bacteria, etc.)
What is the vector of filaria?
A wide range of mosquitoes can transmit the parasite, depending on the geographic area. In Africa, the most common vector is Anopheles and in the Americas, it is Culex quinquefasciatus. Aedes and Mansonia can transmit the infection in the Pacific and in Asia.
What is the drug of choice for filariasis?
Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC), which is both microfilaricidal and active against the adult worm, is the drug of choice for lymphatic filariasis.
What is diethylcarbamazine used for?
Diethylcarbamazine is used in the treatment of certain worm infections. This medicine works by killing the worms.
Which serologic enzyme immunoassay tests are used to diagnose lymphatic filariasis?
Serologic enzyme immunoassay tests, including antifilarial IgG1 and IgG4, provide an alternative to microscopic detection of microfilariae for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis. Patients with active filarial infection typically have elevated levels of antifilarial IgG4 in the blood and these can be detected using routine assays.
Is there a test for lymphatic filariasis in the US?
Currently, this test is not licensed for use in the United States and cannot be used for patient diagnosis. Serologic enzyme immunoassay tests, including antifilarial IgG1 and IgG4, provide an alternative to microscopic detection of microfilariae for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis.
How do you test for filariasis?
Diagnosis. Patients with active filarial infection typically have elevated levels of antifilarial IgG4 in the blood and these can be detected using routine assays. Because lymphedema may develop many years after infection, lab tests are most likely to be negative with these patients.
What is the Alere filariasis test strip?
The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma.