Which of the following examples of gram-negative bacteria can cause inflammation of the brain and surrounding tissues?

Which of the following examples of gram-negative bacteria can cause inflammation of the brain and surrounding tissues?

Gram-negative meningitis is an infection in the membrane surrounding your brain and spinal cord….These include:

  • Acinetobacter baumannii.
  • Enterobacter aerogenes.
  • Escherichia coli, or E. coli.
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae.
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  • Serratia marsescens.

What is GNR in urine?

Gram-negative rods (GNR) are the most common pathogens associated with urinary tract infections (UTI). The resistance of these gram-negative rods to various antibiotics is increasing with time.

What are the side effects of cephalosporins?

Cephalosporins can cause a range of side effects, including:

  • stomach upset.
  • nausea.
  • vomiting.
  • diarrhea.
  • yeast infection or oral thrush.
  • dizziness.

What are contraindications of cephalosporins?

One of the contraindications of cephalosporin is if patients are allergic to them or those that have had an anaphylactic reaction to penicillin or other beta-lactams antimicrobials.

Why is Gram-negative bacteria more pathogenic?

The majority of the WHO list is Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Due to their distinctive structure, Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant than Gram-positive bacteria, and cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide.

How does Gram-negative bacteria cause disease?

Under the capsule, gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane that protects them against certain antibiotics, such as penicillin. When disrupted, this membrane releases toxic substances called endotoxins. Endotoxins contribute to the severity of symptoms during infections with gram-negative bacteria.

What is GNR in microbiology?

Accurate identification of fastidious Gram-negative rods (GNR) is a challenge for clinical microbiology laboratories. Fastidious GNR are slow-growing organisms, which generally require supplemented media or CO2 enriched atmosphere and fail to grow on enteric media such as MacConkey agar [1].

What causes Gram-negative rods?

Gram-negative infections include those caused by Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli., as well as many other less common bacteria.

What is the difference between cephalosporin and penicillin?

Cephalosporins are related to the structure and antimicrobial activity of penicillins. Both groups of antibiotics possess the core four-membered β-lactam ring. The β-lactam ring in penicillins is connected to a five-membered thiazolidine ring, or penam, and the side chain, R, differentiates the different penicillins.

Is cephalosporin the same as cephalexin?

Cephalexin is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics such as cephalexin will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk of getting an infection later that resists antibiotic treatment.

Should I avoid certain foods while taking cephalexin?

. Acidic foods such as citrus juice, carbonated beverages, chocolate, antacids and tomato-based products such as ketchup can all interfere with drug absorption. Have your child avoid these several hours before and after taking the medication, said Seidman. .

When should cephalexin not be taken?

Do not take cephalexin or other antibiotics to treat a viral infection such as the common cold; antibiotics do not kill viruses, and using them to treat viral infections can lead to the growth of resistant bacteria. Kidney function: People with severe kidney problems may require a lower dose of cephalexin.