How does perchlorate get into water?

How does perchlorate get into water?

Perchlorate dissolves easily, is relatively stable and is mobile in water. While it has often been detected in water supplies in close proximity to sites where solid rocket fuel is manufactured or used, there are also locations in the United States lacking a clearly defined source.

How do perchlorates affect the environment?

Perchlorates are also emerging as potent thyroid disruptors, and they have an impact on the ecology too. Many studies have shown that perchlorate contaminates the groundwater and the surface water, especially in the vicinity of fireworks manufacturing sites and fireworks display sites.

What is the source of perchlorate?

Perchlorate occurs naturally in arid states in the Southwest United States (U.S.), in nitrate fertilizer deposits in Chile, and in potash ore in the U.S. and Canada. Perchlorate also forms naturally in the atmosphere.

Is perchlorate a contaminant?

Perchlorate is a persistent contaminant of concern that has presented a number of issues to the government, the private sector, and other organizations and interested parties. These issues include health effects and risk, regulatory standards and cleanup levels, degradation processes, and treatment technologies.

Is perchlorate toxic to humans?

The major toxic effect of perchlorate in humans is thyroid disruption. Perchlorate competitively inhibits the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein responsible for the uptake of iodide into the thyroid and other organs.

How do you stop perchlorate?

You can reduce perchlorate in your drinking water by installing a reverse osmosis filter. As for food, it’s pretty much impossible to avoid perchlorate, but you can reduce its potential effects by making sure you get enough iodine in your diet. Eating iodized salt is one good way.

What is perchlorate in water?

Perchlorate may occur naturally, particularly in arid regions such as the southwestern United States and is found as an impurity in hypochlorite solutions used for drinking water treatment and nitrate salts used to produce nitrate fertilizers, explosives, and other products.

How do you detect perchlorate?

This is a liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS) method for the determination of perchlorate in raw and finished drinking waters. This method is applicable to the identification and quantitation of perchlorate (ClO4-) in raw and finished drinking waters.

Where can perchlorate be found?

Perchlorate also occurs naturally and has been found in high concentrations in soil and water in certain arid areas such as northern Chile and the southwest US (2, 3).

Where are perchlorates found?

Naturally occurring perchlorate at its most abundant can be found comingled with deposits of sodium nitrate in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. These deposits have been heavily mined as sources for nitrate-based fertilizers.

Is perchlorate in drinking water?

The presence of perchlorate in drinking water is also regulated in Arizona, California, New Jersey, New York and Texas. California set a public health goal of 1 ppb in 2015, although its legal limit remains 6 ppb.

What are the ranges of groundwater concentrations of perchlorate that have been reported?

Maximum reported perchlorate concentrations in groundwater at these sites vary widely, ranging from approximately 1 to 276,000 μg/L.

What is perchlorate contamination?

Perchlorate occurs naturally in the environment, in deposits of nitrate and potash, and can be formed in the atmosphere and precipitate into soil and groundwater. It also occurs as an environmental contaminant arising from the use of nitrate fertilizers and from the manufacture, use and disposal of ammonium perchlorate used in rocket propellants, explosives, fireworks, flares and air-bag inflators and in other industrial processes.

Is perchlorate soluble in water?

Perchlorate salts have low vapour pressure and hence cannot volatilize under ambient conditions. Perchlorate salts are highly soluble in water and dissolved perchlorate anions do not tend to partition from aqueous to gas phase.

What is the Lewis structure of perchlorate?

Total number of electrons of the valance shells of chlorine and oxygen atoms and charge of the anion.

  • Total valence electrons pairs.
  • Center atom of ClO 4- ion.
  • Lone pairs on atoms.
  • Check the stability of drawn structure of ClO 4- ion and reduce charges on atoms by converting lone pairs to bonds.
  • What is the structure of perchlorate?

    Total valence electrons of given by four oxygen atoms,chlorine atom and negative charge are considered to draw the ClO 4- lewis structure. There are four oxygen atoms and chlorine atom in perchlorate ion.