What does oddball paradigm measure?
The oddball paradigm is a commonly used task for cognitive and attention measurement in ERP studies. 38–40. In this study, two visual stimuli, a box and a sphere, shapes of size 5 cm, were designed as the standard and target stimuli, respectively (see Fig. 8.2).
What is an oddball stimulus?
Unreviewed. A task in which stimuli are presented in a continuous stream and participants must detect the presence of an oddball stimulus. The oddball is a stimulus that occurs infrequently relative to all other stimuli, and has distinct characteristics (e.g., a different tone among auditory stimuli).
What is the oddball effect?
The oddball effect is a perceptual phenomenon whereby novel or unexpected stimuli result in longer perceived time durations.
What is the attentional blink paradigm?
The attentional blink (AB) paradigm measures the temporal capacity limits of attention (Dux and Marois, 2009). In the standard AB task, identification of a first target (T1) during a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream transiently impairs the ability to detect a second target (T2) (see Figure 1A).
What is the N400 effect?
The N400 wave is an event-related brain potential (ERP) measured using electroencephalography (EEG). N400 refers to a negativity peaking at about 400 milliseconds after stimulus onset. It has been used to investigate semantic processing, which may be dysfunctional in schizophrenia.
What is P300 wave?
The P300 wave is a positive deflection in the human event-related potential. It is most commonly elicited in an “oddball” paradigm when a subject detects an occasional “target” stimulus in a regular train of standard stimuli.
How do you measure event related potentials?
ERPs can be reliably measured using electroencephalography (EEG), a procedure that measures electrical activity of the brain over time using electrodes placed on the scalp. The EEG reflects thousands of simultaneously ongoing brain processes.
What is the difference between endogenous and exogenous attention?
Goal-driven attention is referred to as top-down or endogenous attention, whereas stimulus-driven attention is referred to as bottom-up or exogenous attention, being driven by external events in the environment (e.g., Posner & Cohen, 1984).
What is overt and covert attention?
By definition, overt attention corresponds to target fixation, whereas covert attention corresponds to attending a target without fixation (Posner, 1980).
What is N400 brain wave?
What are N400 and P600?
Introduction. The N400 and the P600 are the two most salient components of the event-related potential (ERP) signal that are differentially modulated during incremental language comprehension. Yet, their functional interpretation is still a matter of debate.
What are P3 brain waves?
The P300 (P3) wave is an event-related potential (ERP) component elicited in the process of decision making. It is considered to be an endogenous potential, as its occurrence links not to the physical attributes of a stimulus, but to a person’s reaction to it.