What is reforming in hydrocarbon?

What is reforming in hydrocarbon?

reforming, in chemistry, processing technique by which the molecular structure of a hydrocarbon is rearranged to alter its properties. The process is frequently applied to low-quality gasoline stocks to improve their combustion characteristics.

What are the products of reforming?

Products from catalytic reforming include high-octane gasoline useful as automobile fuel, aromatics, and hydrogen. The typical reactions in catalytic reforming are dehydrocyclization, isomerization, and dehydrogenation.

What is the catalyst used in reforming?

Catalytic reforming uses a catalyst, usually platinum, to produce a similar result. Mixed with hydrogen, naphtha is heated and passed over pellets of catalyst in a series of reactors, under high pressure, producing high-octane gasoline.

Why hydrogen is used in reforming process?

In many petroleum refineries, the net hydrogen produced in catalytic reforming supplies a significant part of the hydrogen used elsewhere in the refinery (for example, in hydrodesulfurization processes). The hydrogen is also necessary in order to hydrogenolyze any polymers that form on the catalyst.

What are reforming reactions?

Reforming reactions are widely used to produce hydrogen from hydrocarbons and alcohols. Steam reforming involves the reaction between a hydrocarbon or alcohol and steam to form syngas (see eqn [11]), a mixture of H2 and CO. Dry reforming involves reactions of hydrocarbons or alcohols and CO2 (see eqn [12]).

What is reforming in crude oil?

Reforming is a process designed to increase the volume of gasoline that can be produced from a barrel of crude oil. Hydrocarbons in the naphtha stream have roughly the same number of carbon atoms as those in gasoline, but their structure is generally more complex.

What happens in a reforming reaction?

Reforming reactions, in the presence of a catalyst, involve the rearrangement of the molecular structure of the hydrocarbons to form a new molecular structure.

What does naphtha consist of?

Naphtha contains varying amounts of paraffins, olefins, naphthene constituents, and aromatics and olefins in different proportions in addition to potential isomers of paraffin that exist in naphtha boiling range.

What is a reformer hydrogen?

The reformer is the device that extracts the pure hydrogen from a hydrogen source, such as hydrocarbon or alcohol fuels, and then provides the hydrogen to the fuel cell.

What is reforming in chemistry with examples?

What is reforming? Reforming takes straight chain hydrocarbons in the C6 to C8 range from the gasoline or naphtha fractions and rearranges them into compounds containing benzene rings. Hydrogen is produced as a by-product of the reactions. For example, hexane, C6H14, loses hydrogen and turns into benzene.

What is reforming in petroleum refining process?

What hydrocarbons are in naphtha?

Hydrocarbons from crude oil Naphtha contains varying amounts of paraffins, olefins, naphthene constituents, and aromatics and olefins in different proportions in addition to potential isomers of paraffin that exist in naphtha boiling range.

How do you describe the steam reforming of higher hydrocarbons?

The steam reforming of higher hydrocarbons will then be described by either Equation 4 or 5 together with Equations 1 and 2. Thus, higher hydrocarbons present in the feed will undergo reforming following Equations 1 through 5, and at the end of reaction the only gases present will be CH4, CO, CO2, H2 and H2O.

What is the composition of the exit gas during hydrocarbon reform?

As a general observation, when reforming higher saturated hydrocarbons and provided that contact time is long enough, the exit gas composition is that which approximately corresponds to the chemical equilibria involving the methane-steam and water gas shift reactions (Equations 1 and 2).

How are hydrocarbons reformed to produce hydrogen for PEM fuel cells?

Partial oxidation, autothermal reforming, and steam reforming are the primary methods used in reforming hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen for use in PEM fuel cells.

What is the difference between autothermal and steam reforming aromatic hydrocarbons?

Steam reforming of aromatic hydrocarbons requires a higher temperature than that of paraffinic hydrocarbons similar to the reported results for autothermal reforming [13].